The concept and classification of hard water
01 Hard water
Hard water is water that contains a certain amount of calcium carbonate, magnesium, iron, aluminum and manganese, as well as impurities of bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and nitrate. Hard water is more than 80 PPM. Calcium and magnesium salts are the main constituents of hard water.
02 Temporary Hard Water vs. Permanent Hard Water
Temporary hard water: Any water that contains impurities such as bicarbonate is called temporary hard water, also known as carbonated hard water. Temporarily hard water can be converted to soft water because it can be heated to remove soluble impurities.
Permanent hard water: Any water that contains impurities such as calcium, magnesium and other metals such as sulfates and chlorides is called permanent hard water, also known as non-carbonated hard water. Permanent hard water contains many types of impurities. After heating and boiling, some can be removed, some can not be removed, especially sulfates and chlorides can not be removed at all, but if chemical raw materials such as emollients are added, it can also become permanent hard water to soften.
03 How to identify hard water
Method 1: Prepare a clean glass piece, pour the water you want to test on the glass piece and when the water drops evaporate, check for residual white matter, more than hard water and less than soft water?
Method 2: Heat the water in a beaker and notice if there are salts in the water wall, if there is more water, it is hard water.
Method 3: Put the water in a glass, pour a small amount of soapy water, water with less foam is water with higher hardness.
Hazards from hard water in washing and ironing
01 Destroy the texture and color of linen
Washing linen in hard water can damage their texture and color. Calcium and magnesium ions in hard water are deposited on the fabric, causing graying of the white fabric, affecting the whiteness and feel of the hand, darkening the color of the colored fabric, losing the light feeling and rough hand.
02 Reduce the operation of the detergent
The calcium and magnesium ions in hard water combine with surfactants in detergents to form minerals, which make the surfactants lose their vitality, fail to play the proper performance of detergents, and reduce the main functions of detergents.
03 Stubborn stains are difficult to remove
Calcium and magnesium ions in water can be combined with substances in detergents to form sediments. In addition, calcium ions also affect the removal of stained dirt, so that some dirt still adheres to the clothes after washing, is pierced in the holes of the fibers and capillaries and is hidden in the gaps of the fibers.
04 Corrosive linen ironing tools
When ironing fabrics, due to the accumulation of hard water-scale deposits, the steam pipes of steam generators, irons, irons and other equipment will narrow or even clog, reducing the thermal conductivity of the ironing equipment. The chlorine ions in the scales will corrode the wall of the container tube at high temperature, forming brine iron salts, resulting in the thinning of the tube wall of the ironing equipment.
How to soften hard water
01 Chemical softening method
The method of chemical softening, also known as the aqueous agent method, is the addition of sodium trisodium carbonate or sodium hexametaphosphate, ethylenediamine, sodium tetraacetate and other chemicals to the water and reacting with the water to form solutions. so that they can be removed from the water.remove.
02 Ion exchange method
Ion exchange water softener is the use of cation exchange resin to adsorb cations such as calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and other cations into the water, which can not only soften the water, but also remove some impurities that do not are favorable for washing. Ion exchange water softener method, easy to operate, long life, slightly longer one-time investment, but low maintenance costs. That is why it is now widely used by most washing machines.
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